Holly M. Smith


In a two-tiered, or Dual Oughts, moral theory, the objective account of right and wrong is supplemented by decision guides (such as “Maximize expected value”) designed to enable an agent, uncertain about the circumstances or consequences of her possible actions, to indirectly apply the objective theory by using an appropriate decision guide. But are the decision guides counsels of morality or counsels of rationality?  Peter Graham argues they are counsels of pragmatic rationality.  This paper shows Graham’s view is unsuccessful, and argues, based on the approach recently developed in [Author] that decision guides must be seen as moral principles. An explanation is provided for why we may be tempted to interpret decision guides as principles of rationality.